CASE NOTES


A CHLAMYDIA SEROLOGICAL STUDY IN A COMMERCIAL SHEEP FLOCK

Evelyn Walker, District Veterinarian Central West LLS (Dubbo) and Assoc. Prof. Adam Polkinghorne, Centre for Animal Health Innovation, University of the Sunshine Coast

Posted Flock & Herd March 2016

INTRODUCTION

Chlamydia pecorum (C. pecorum), an obligate intracellular bacterial pathogen, commonly isolated from the gastrointestinal tract, is ubiquitous in livestock globally. In sheep, C. pecorum is mainly associated with keratoconjunctivitis and polyarthritis. However, it has also been implicated in respiratory disease1, abortions2 and enteritis3. Faecal shedding has been documented in clinically healthy4,5 and diseased sheep6. The major route of transmission is believed to be faecal-oral7

Research is still needed to understand the true impacts of this pathogen in sheep with subclinical C. pecorum infection. Overseas studies for example, have reported reduced growth rates and decreased overall herd performance in asymptomatic infected calves8,9, but no such studies have been reported in lamb flocks overseas or in Australia. This case investigates the impact of naturally acquired C. pecorum infection in a commercial lamb flock in Central Western NSW from marking until finishing.

HISTORY

A sheep producer from the Warren area was followed up after experiencing annual cases of chlamydiosis in their Border Leicester lambs. The owner had used long-acting oxytetracycline antimicrobials in the past, but continued to get infected individuals with arthritis and severe conjunctivitis.  Some years were worse than others and it was becoming an economic concern. 

METHODS

Lambs in this study were managed as per normal farm husbandry practices (e.g. marking, feeding, weaning, vaccinations etc.) One hundred and five Border Leicester mixed sex lambs at time of marking (two months of age) were uniquely ear tagged and sampled at bi-monthly intervals until finishing (ten months of age).

Serum and swab samples (e.g. conjunctival, rectal and vaginal) were collected from the lambs at each sampling. Serum samples were analysed for Chlamydia antibodies using the CFT by the State Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory in NSW.  The Chlamydia CFT detects antibodies to the lipopolysaccharide antigen common to all Chlamydiaceae species10. A serum sample was considered positive with a titre of 16 or greater in this study. 

At each sampling time point, body weight was recorded and lambs were scored for clinical parameters such as conjunctival colour, ocular discharge and presence of joint and gait abnormalities.

RESULTS

Clinical examination & Chlamydia CFT

Lambs were first sampled at two months of age. This coincided with the producer’s normal yarding for lamb marking. 49% (51/105) of lambs had varying degrees of conjunctival discharge ranging from dry, to serous and purulent. Grass seeds were also present in the conjunctiva of some lambs. No gait or joint abnormalities were detected at two months of age but 12% (13/105) lambs were seropositive via Chlamydia CFT with the remaining lambs seronegative.

At four months of age, conjunctival discharge was still present with 39% of lambs (42/107) affected and joint lesions started to become apparent in the lamb flock with eight lambs demonstrating palpably swollen joints in one or more joints. Surprisingly, at this sampling, only one lamb had a positive titre.

At six months of age, 40% (42/106) of lambs were seropositive with 70% (72/106) of lambs having evidence of varying degrees of conjunctivitis and ten lambs demonstrating one or more palpable swollen joints. The presence of a swollen joint and/or conjunctivitis did not necessarily correspond with a positive Chlamydia CFT result.

Two months later, the seropositivity had doubled to 80% (85/106) in the lamb flock. Conjunctivitis in the flock had declined to 50% (53/106). Interestingly, the joint lesions palpated two months later were not detected at eight months of age.

At the last sampling (ten months of age), seropositivity in the flock had declined to 31% (31/101). Conjunctivitis in the flock remained with 55% of lambs affected. Swollen joints were palpated in four lambs at ten months of age.

Analysis of remaining data and samples collected (vaginal, rectal and conjunctival swabs) for C. pecorum qPCR is still to be analysed. 

DISCUSSION

Based on these preliminary results, the following trends were observed: (i) peak seroconversion occurred at eight months of age; (ii) the presence or absence of clinical signs did not necessarily correspond with antibody titres; and (iii) that lambs appear to be mostly born seronegative. Based on this study, conjunctivitis was consistent throughout the flock across all sampling time points while signs of joint infection (e.g. palpable synovial joint effusions) remained transient. The lambs in this study were weaned at six months of age. It is possible the stress of weaning could have precipitated a spread of chlamydial flock infection and therefore attributed to a rise in Chlamydia antibody titres.  Further investigation into understanding the epidemiology of this disease is being investigated throughout the Central West region. 

ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS

Thank you to Central West LLS District Veterinarians and Biosecurity Officers for their assistance in this project.

REFERENCES

  1. Biberstein EL, Nisbet DI, Thompson, DA. Experimental pneumonia in sheep. J Comp Pathol. 1967; 77: 181-192
  2. Seaman J. Chlamydia isolated from abortion in sheep. Aust Vet J. 1985; 62: 436
  3. Osman KM, Ali HA, ElJakee JA, Galal HM. Chlamydophila psittaci and Chlamydophila pecorum infections in goats and sheep in Egypt. Rev Sci Tech. 2011; 30: 939-948
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  5. Yang R, Jacobson C, Gardner G, Carmichael I, Campbell A JD, Ryan, U. Longitudinal prevalence and faecal shedding of Chlamydia pecorum in sheep. Vet J. 2014; 201: 322-6
  6. Walker E, Lee EJ, Timms P, Polkinghorne A. Chlamydia pecorum infections in sheep and cattle: a common and under-recognised infectious disease with significant impact on animal health. Vet J. 2015. 206: 252-60
  7. Parkinson TJ, Vermunt JJ, Malmo J. Sporadic bovine encephalomyelitis. In: Diseases of Cattle in Australasia, A comprehensive textbook, First Ed. Wellington: VetLearn; 2010. p. 832-3
  8. Reinhold P, Jaeger J, Liebler-Tenorio E, Berndt A, Bachmann R, Schubert E, Melzer F, Elschner M, Sachse K. Impact of latent infections with Chlamydophila species in young cattle. Vet J. 2008. 175: 202-11
  9. Poudel A, Elsasser TH, Shamsur Rahman Kh, Chowdhury EU, Kaltenboeck B. Asymptomatic endemic Chlamydia pecorum infections reduce growth rates in calves by up to 48 percent. 2012. Plos One 7, 44961
  10. Brade H, Brade L, Nano FE. Chemical and serological investigations on the genus-specific lipopolysaccharide epitope of chlamydia. Proc Natl Acad Sci USA. 1987; 84: 2508-12

 


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